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  • Boss Erichsen posted an update 4 days, 17 hours ago

    Despite modern treatment and intervention strategies, the disease still carries a poor visual prognosis with one-quarter of the patients being blind. The disease is more severe and the risk of losing useful vision is higher in males than in females. In a Turkish study, it was reported that the estimated risk of losing useful vision after 10years was 30% in males and 17% in females. In contrast, study on Behçet’s disease in Korea revealed that females have a higher frequency of ocular lesions than males. In the current study, though the prevalence of male was higher, a significant vision loss was higher in females, where 3 out of 6 females had visual acuity of 0.1 and less. Meanwhile, 7 out of the 12 males had visual acuity of 0.8 and higher.Conflict of interestIntroductionAmblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment in children, with a prevalence of 1.6–3.6% that is higher in medically underserved populations. It has been related to unequal foveal stimulation at an early age due to form vision deprivation, strabismus or refractive error. The deficit in amblyopia is thought to be cortical in nature, but abnormalities have also been found in the lateral geniculate bodies and in the retina.Amblyopia can be successfully treated in subjects up to 10years of age. However, even if visual acuity returns to normal after successful treatment, several studies have reported that the treated eye as well as the fellow eye behaves abnormally when evaluated for a variety of functions which include reduction in visual acuity, RO4929097 sensitivity and position acuity.Visual acuity (VA) alone does not reflect the visual performance of the amblyopic eye. Studies have shown that VA testing using conventional optotypes is insensitive for detecting subtle defects in visual function. The advent of new technology has introduced new tests for evaluating foveal function especially in amblyopic children. These include the subjective visual acuity tests such as TriVA-test and the rarebit fovea test (RFT). However, their dependence on the psychophysical interaction of the children with their short attention span limits their actual benefits. Alternately, wavefront aberrometry is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure ocular aberrations and to study the objective visual performance of human eyes including amblyopic eyes.Wavefront aberrations (ocular as well as optical aberrations) referred to the deviation of light, as it enters the eye compared to optically perfect eye, resulting in blurred images and decreased visual performance. Aberrations may be subdivided into low order aberrations, which can be corrected by sphero-cylindrical lenses, and higher order aberrations, which cannot.In the present study we evaluate the ocular aberrations of amblyopic children and test for an association to amblyopia, to further understand the possible etiologies of amblyopia and explain possible outcomes of traditional amblyopia treatment. Photorefractive procedures have been used as a promising treatment of anisometropic amblyopes, yet aberration free custom ablation remains controversial as to whether they can control the remaining portion of refractory amblyopia.Subjects and methodsMethodologyHigher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured at 3 and 6mm pupil diameters with the Wavescan System aberrometer (AMO, Santa Ana, CA, USA) based on the Hartmann–Shack principle. This aberrometer measures the monochromatic aberrations of the entire eye. Measurements were performed in a dark room after ciliary muscle paralysis by using cyclopentolate (1%) eye drops. The patient was asked to blink once just before the scan and focus on the fixation target. Scans were then performed and the measurements repeated three times for each eye, an average value was calculated for statistical analysis. Image quality, least central displacement and the root mean square (RMS) values were collected.